Learn about red wine — the range of styles, how it’s made and more ...
What are the types and styles of red wine?
Ranging in style from light and full of finesse to bold and structured, red wine is produced in almost every wine region of the world. Though there are about 35 varieties that contribute to the majority of red wine production, countless native varieties are important not only to local culture, but to the diversity of globally traded wine. Warmer, sunnier climates produce robust and concentrated wines while cooler regions, where long, even grape ripening and thus natural acidities create some of the world’s most elegant red wines.
How is red wine made?
To make red wine, the pressed grape juice is left in contact with its skins—a process called maceration—in order to draw out color, tannins and phenols (compounds responsible for the complex aromas and flavors in wine). Occurring before, during or after fermentation, whereby yeasts turn grape sugar into alcohol, longer macerations in general produce bolder red wines (with a point of diminishing returns). Red wines benefit from a resting period of a few months to a few years in wooden barrels (or other containers) before release to the market.
What gives red wine its color?
Red grape skins give color to the finished wine through the maceration process. In general, shorter time on skins results in lighter red tones; longer time gives deeper red tones. On top of that, each grape type has a unique hue. For example Nebbiolo is typically pale garnet, Merlot is often bright ruby and Syrah can be opaque purple.
How do you serve red wine?
The idea that red wine should be served at room temperature came about in ancient France when the indoor temperatures were likely to be about 60F. Chambre, for “room” in French, described a wine that had been brought to this “room temperature” from the cellar. Today if you don’t have the luxury of keeping your red wine in a proper cellar or wine refrigerator, a trick of the trade is to put the bottle you plan to serve in the refrigerator for 30 to 40 minutes to cool it down to about 55F to 60F for lighter bodied wines and to 60F to 65F for fuller bodied wines. As for drinking red wines, the best red wine glasses have a stem and a bowl large enough to allow swirling without spilling. Aromatic reds fare best in glasses with a wider bowl to allow full release of the bouquet.
How long does red wine last?
Opened, a bottle of red wine will stay fresh in a cool, dark environment for one to two days, maybe longer. Unopened, red wines stay good for one year to several decades. Assessing how long to hold on to a bottle is a complicated science. If you are planning to strategically store red wine, seek the advice of a wine professional.
- Red Wine1142
- Cabernet Sauvignon272
- Bordeaux Red Blends200
- Pinot Noir153
- Other Red Blends81
- Rhône Blends19
- Tuscan Blends8
- Cabernet Franc6
- Petite Sirah6
- Other Red Wine4
- Pinot Meunier2
Penfolds Grange 1996Syrah/Shiraz from South Australia, Australia
Chateau Angelus 1996Bordeaux Red Blends from St. Emilion, Bordeaux, France
Chateau Montelena Estate Cabernet Sauvignon 1996Cabernet Sauvignon from Napa Valley, California
Fontanabianca Barbaresco 1996Nebbiolo from Barbaresco, Piedmont, Italy
Oakford Vineyards Cabernet Sauvignon 1996Cabernet Sauvignon from Napa Valley, California
Caves Sao Joao Poco do Lobo Tinto 1996Other Red Blends from Portugal
Sierra Cantabria Cantabria Coleccion Privada 1996Tempranillo from Rioja, Spain
Bodegas Ismael Arroyo Val Sotillo 1996Tempranillo from Ribera del Duero, Spain
Teofilo Reyes Tinto (slightly torn labels) 1996Other Red Blends from Ribera del Duero, Spain
Opus One 1996Bordeaux Red Blends from Oakville, Napa Valley, California
Silver Oak Alexander Valley Cabernet Sauvignon 1996Cabernet Sauvignon from Alexander Valley, Sonoma County, California
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Chateau Pichon-Longueville Baron 1996Bordeaux Red Blends from Pauillac, Bordeaux, France
Pahlmeyer Napa Valley Proprietary Red 1996Bordeaux Red Blends from Napa Valley, California
Chateau Lafite Rothschild 1996Bordeaux Red Blends from Pauillac, Bordeaux, France
Dalla Valle Cabernet Sauvignon 1996Cabernet Sauvignon from Napa Valley, California
Domenico Clerico Barolo Percristina 1996Nebbiolo from Barolo, Piedmont, Italy
Chateau Calon-Segur 1996Bordeaux Red Blends from St. Estephe, Bordeaux, France