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Dessert, Sherry, Port & other Fortified wine

Learn about dessert, Sherry, Port & other fortified wine — the range of styles, how they are made and more …

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What are the types and styles of dessert wine?

Dessert wines come in an impressive array of styles and sweetness levels. The most straightforward method for making dessert wine is quite simply a late harvest of wine grapes, though further distinctions arise based on country of origin. The main examples include Sauternes (France), Tokaji (Hungary) and ice wine (Germany and Canada).

What are the types and styles of fortified wine?

Fortified wines (meaning alcohol has been added during the winemaking process) include Sherry, Port, Madeira, Banyuls, Rutherglen and other very small-scale styles. Sherry comes in completely dry styles (Fino, Manzanilla, Amontillado, Palo Cortado) and also in a range of sweetness levels. Madeira is typically sweet but can be made into a dry style. Port can be most simply separated into Tawny and Ruby styles. Vermouth, an herb-infused fine wine, is today popular among mixologists and other dessert wines are derived, not from wine grapes, but from different fruits.

How are dessert and fortified wines made?

As mentioned above, many wines in this category—like Sauternes and Tokaji—are produced by leaving the grapes on the vine long after the rest of the harvest has been processed in order to accumulate very high sugar levels. Often, a form of “noble” rot called botrytis plays a role, desiccating the grapes until only the very flavorful solids and sugars remain. These late-picked wines are, accordingly, often referred to as late-harvest wines. In colder climates, the grapes may be allowed to freeze on the vine for the production of ice wine. Other styles are made by letting the harvested grapes dry out (also concentrating sugars). Fortified wines are fortified with neutral spirits to increase the level of alcohol, and, depending on the final style of wine desired, arrest fermentation while some level, high to low (or no), residual sugar remains.

What gives dessert and fortified wines their color?

The different colors of most dessert wines come from the type of grape used and varying levels of oxidation during the winemaking process. The colors of Sherry and Port are mainly the result of oxidation, or lack thereof. Fino and Manzanilla styles are clear to pale gold because of the benevolent film-forming yeasts, called flor, that make a floating seal on the surface of the wine. This layer protects the wine from oxidation, and thus any browning. The other styles of Sherry use various levels of controlled oxidation, resulting in various hues of amber. The two basic styles of Port, Ruby and Tawny, also come in two basic colors, as noted by their names. Both styles are made from the same blend of Douro red varieties, but Tawny ports are tawny in color because they are made from a blend of vintages that have been aged in barrels and gradually exposed to oxygen. Ruby Ports retain their bright color because these wines are aged in barrel only for two to three years before bottling, thus minimizing any color change from oxidation.

How do you serve dessert and fortified wines?

Because of the typically higher sugar and alcohol content, the recommended serving size for most dessert, Sherry & Port wines is three ounces, which is smaller than for regular table wine. In general dessert wines should be served cold—a very sweet Tokaji is served at 40F; Sauternes are best at 50F. Fino and Manzanilla Sherries are best served at 45-50F, while the Amontillados, Olorosos and beyond, are best at 55F. Tawny Ports have a recommended serving temperature of 50-55F, whereas Ruby and Vintage Ports have a recommended serving temperature of 65F.

How long do dessert and fortified wines last?

High quality dessert wines such as Sauternes and Tokaji can often improve up to 10 to 20 years from bottling. Fino and Manzanilla Sherries should be consumed within a year or two of bottling since they are most appreciated for their freshness. Once opened, these are best consumed within a week. Store Amontillado Sherry up to about three years; once opened and refrigerated, these last two to three weeks before they decline. Store Oloro Sherry up to five years; once opened and refrigerated, these last a few weeks or longer. Cream Sherries are best consumed in their youth. Pedro Ximénez Sherry is a special case. It won’t necessarily improve with age, but is known to remain unchanged after many years of age. The two basic styles of Port can be further separated into an almost dizzying list of styles, but in general the only ones meant to age longer once bottled are crusted ports and vintage ports (from a declared vintage). Aside from those, LBV (late bottled vintage) ports should age about 4-6 years from the release date and the rest are ready to drink upon release. Fruit wines are not meant to age; the fresh fruit qualities of these wines are most prominent in their youth.

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  • Graham's 20 Year Old Tawny Port Front Label
    Graham's 20 Year Old Tawny Port
    Port from Douro, Portugal
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    • JS94
    • WS93
    • WE90
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  • Graham's Six Grapes Reserve Port Front Label
    Graham's Six Grapes Reserve Port
    Port from Douro, Portugal
    • D95
    • W&S91
    • WW91
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    • Cockburn's 20 Year Old Tawny Port (500ML) Front Label
      Cockburn's 20 Year Old Tawny Port (500ML)
      Port from Portugal
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      • WE91
      4.2 87 Ratings
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      • Taylor Fladgate 10 Year Old Tawny Front Label
        Taylor Fladgate 10 Year Old Tawny
        Port from Portugal
        • RP93
        • WS90
        • WE90
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        • Graham's 40 Year Old Tawny Port Front Label
          Graham's 40 Year Old Tawny Port
          Port from Douro, Portugal
          • WS96
          • JS96
          • WE94
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          • Fonseca Bin No. 27 Port Front Label
            Fonseca Bin No. 27 Port
            Port from Portugal
            • TP91
            • D91
            • WS90
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            • Dow's 10 Year Old Tawny Port  Front Label
              Dow's 10 Year Old Tawny Port
              Port from Portugal
              • WS92
              • RP92
              • WW92
              • WE90
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              • Graham's Vintage Port 2016  Front Label
                Graham's Vintage Port 2016
                Port from Douro, Portugal
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                • WE97
                • RP95
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              • Croft Reserve Tawny Porto Front Label
                Croft Reserve Tawny Porto
                Port from Portugal
                • TP92
                • WS90
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                • Graham's Six Grapes Reserve Port (375ML half-bottle) Front Label
                  Graham's Six Grapes Reserve Port (375ML half-bottle)
                  Port from Douro, Portugal
                  • D95
                  • W&S91
                  • WW91
                  4.1 92 Ratings
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                  • Sandeman Vintage Port 2016  Front Label
                    Sandeman Vintage Port 2016
                    Port from Douro, Portugal
                    • WE99
                    • WS96
                    • RP93
                    • D91
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                    • Carpano Antica Formula Sweet Vermouth (375ML half-bottle) Front Label
                      Carpano Antica Formula Sweet Vermouth (375ML half-bottle)
                      Vermouth from Italy
                      • WE95
                      4.5 161 Ratings
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                      • Taylor Fladgate Fine Tawny Front Label
                        Taylor Fladgate Fine Tawny
                        Port from Portugal
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                          • Carpano Antica Formula Sweet Vermouth (1 Liter)  Front Bottle Shot
                            Carpano Antica Formula Sweet Vermouth (1 Liter)
                            Vermouth from Italy
                            • WE95
                            4.7 190 Ratings
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                            • Sandeman Fine Ruby Port  Front Label
                              Sandeman Fine Ruby Port
                              Port from Portugal
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                                • Hidalgo La Gitana Manzanilla Sherry (500ML) Front Label
                                  Hidalgo La Gitana Manzanilla Sherry (500ML)
                                  Sherry from Jerez, Spain
                                  • WS92
                                  3.1 100 Ratings
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                                  • Lillet Blanc Front Label
                                    Lillet Blanc
                                    Vermouth from France
                                    • WE92
                                    4.3 112 Ratings
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                                    • Lustau Don Nuno Dry Oloroso Sherry  Front Label
                                      Lustau Don Nuno Dry Oloroso Sherry
                                      Sherry from Jerez, Spain
                                      • WE92
                                      • W&S91
                                      3.9 29 Ratings
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                                      • Chateau d'Yquem Sauternes (375ML half-bottle) 2016  Front Label
                                        Chateau d'Yquem Sauternes (375ML half-bottle) 2016
                                        Other Dessert from Sauternes, Bordeaux, France
                                        • JS99
                                        • RP98
                                        • WE96
                                        • WS94
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                                      • Dow's Vintage Port 2016 Front Label
                                        Dow's Vintage Port 2016
                                        Port from Portugal
                                        • D98
                                        • WS98
                                        • WE97
                                        • JS96
                                        • RP93
                                        4.4 10 Ratings
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                                      • El Maestro Sierra Palo Cortado Sherry (375ML) Front Label
                                        El Maestro Sierra Palo Cortado Sherry (375ML)
                                        Sherry from Jerez, Spain
                                        • W&S93
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                                        • Chateau Guiraud Petit Guiraud Sauternes (375ML half-bottle) 2016  Front Label
                                          Chateau Guiraud Petit Guiraud Sauternes (375ML half-bottle) 2016
                                          Other Dessert from Sauternes, Bordeaux, France
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                                          • Ramos Pinto Collector Port Front Label
                                            Ramos Pinto Collector Port
                                            Port from Portugal
                                            • WW92
                                            4.0 34 Ratings
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                                            • Graham's 10 Year Old Tawny Port Front Label
                                              Graham's 10 Year Old Tawny Port
                                              Port from Douro, Portugal
                                              • D93
                                              • JS93
                                              • WE91
                                              • WS90
                                              4.3 195 Ratings
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                                              • Yalumba Antique Tawny Port (375ML half-bottle)  Front Label
                                                Yalumba Antique Tawny Port (375ML half-bottle)
                                                Port from Barossa Valley, Barossa, South Australia, Australia
                                                • V93
                                                • RP92
                                                • WE92
                                                • WS91
                                                • D91
                                                4.1 133 Ratings
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