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Dessert, Sherry, Port & other Fortified wine

Learn about dessert, Sherry, Port & other fortified wine — the range of styles, how they are made and more …

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What are the types and styles of dessert wine?

Dessert wines come in an impressive array of styles and sweetness levels. The most straightforward method for making dessert wine is quite simply a late harvest of wine grapes, though further distinctions arise based on country of origin. The main examples include Sauternes (France), Tokaji (Hungary) and ice wine (Germany and Canada).

What are the types and styles of fortified wine?

Fortified wines (meaning alcohol has been added during the winemaking process) include Sherry, Port, Madeira, Banyuls, Rutherglen and other very small-scale styles. Sherry comes in completely dry styles (Fino, Manzanilla, Amontillado, Palo Cortado) and also in a range of sweetness levels. Madeira is typically sweet but can be made into a dry style. Port can be most simply separated into Tawny and Ruby styles. Vermouth, an herb-infused fine wine, is today popular among mixologists and other dessert wines are derived, not from wine grapes, but from different fruits.

How are dessert and fortified wines made?

As mentioned above, many wines in this category—like Sauternes and Tokaji—are produced by leaving the grapes on the vine long after the rest of the harvest has been processed in order to accumulate very high sugar levels. Often, a form of “noble” rot called botrytis plays a role, desiccating the grapes until only the very flavorful solids and sugars remain. These late-picked wines are, accordingly, often referred to as late-harvest wines. In colder climates, the grapes may be allowed to freeze on the vine for the production of ice wine. Other styles are made by letting the harvested grapes dry out (also concentrating sugars). Fortified wines are fortified with neutral spirits to increase the level of alcohol, and, depending on the final style of wine desired, arrest fermentation while some level, high to low (or no), residual sugar remains.

What gives dessert and fortified wines their color?

The different colors of most dessert wines come from the type of grape used and varying levels of oxidation during the winemaking process. The colors of Sherry and Port are mainly the result of oxidation, or lack thereof. Fino and Manzanilla styles are clear to pale gold because of the benevolent film-forming yeasts, called flor, that make a floating seal on the surface of the wine. This layer protects the wine from oxidation, and thus any browning. The other styles of Sherry use various levels of controlled oxidation, resulting in various hues of amber. The two basic styles of Port, Ruby and Tawny, also come in two basic colors, as noted by their names. Both styles are made from the same blend of Douro red varieties, but Tawny ports are tawny in color because they are made from a blend of vintages that have been aged in barrels and gradually exposed to oxygen. Ruby Ports retain their bright color because these wines are aged in barrel only for two to three years before bottling, thus minimizing any color change from oxidation.

How do you serve dessert and fortified wines?

Because of the typically higher sugar and alcohol content, the recommended serving size for most dessert, Sherry & Port wines is three ounces, which is smaller than for regular table wine. In general dessert wines should be served cold—a very sweet Tokaji is served at 40F; Sauternes are best at 50F. Fino and Manzanilla Sherries are best served at 45-50F, while the Amontillados, Olorosos and beyond, are best at 55F. Tawny Ports have a recommended serving temperature of 50-55F, whereas Ruby and Vintage Ports have a recommended serving temperature of 65F.

How long do dessert and fortified wines last?

High quality dessert wines such as Sauternes and Tokaji can often improve up to 10 to 20 years from bottling. Fino and Manzanilla Sherries should be consumed within a year or two of bottling since they are most appreciated for their freshness. Once opened, these are best consumed within a week. Store Amontillado Sherry up to about three years; once opened and refrigerated, these last two to three weeks before they decline. Store Oloro Sherry up to five years; once opened and refrigerated, these last a few weeks or longer. Cream Sherries are best consumed in their youth. Pedro Ximénez Sherry is a special case. It won’t necessarily improve with age, but is known to remain unchanged after many years of age. The two basic styles of Port can be further separated into an almost dizzying list of styles, but in general the only ones meant to age longer once bottled are crusted ports and vintage ports (from a declared vintage). Aside from those, LBV (late bottled vintage) ports should age about 4-6 years from the release date and the rest are ready to drink upon release. Fruit wines are not meant to age; the fresh fruit qualities of these wines are most prominent in their youth.

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  • Fonseca 20 Year Old Tawny Front Label
    Fonseca 20 Year Old Tawny
    Port from Portugal
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    • Ferreira Dona Antonia 20 Year Tawny Port Front Label
      Ferreira Dona Antonia 20 Year Tawny Port
      Port from Portugal
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      • WS92
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      • Graham's 20 Year Old Tawny Port Front Label
        Graham's 20 Year Old Tawny Port
        Port from Douro, Portugal
        • D96
        • JS94
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        • WE90
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      • Graham's 30 Year Old Tawny Port Front Label
        Graham's 30 Year Old Tawny Port
        Port from Douro, Portugal
        • JS96
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        • Broadbent 10 Year Sercial Madeira Front Label
          Broadbent 10 Year Sercial Madeira
          Madeira from Madeira, Portugal
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          • RP90
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          • Graham's Vintage Port 2016  Front Label
            Graham's Vintage Port 2016
            Port from Douro, Portugal
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            • D98
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            • WE97
            • RP95
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          • Fonseca Bin No. 27 Port Front Label
            Fonseca Bin No. 27 Port
            Port from Portugal
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            • D91
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            • Taylor Fladgate 10 Year Old Tawny Front Label
              Taylor Fladgate 10 Year Old Tawny
              Port from Portugal
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              • JS93
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              • WE90
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              • Ferreira Vintage Port 2018  Front Label
                Ferreira Vintage Port 2018
                Port from Douro, Portugal
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                • RP96
                • WS94
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                • Sandeman 20 Year Old Tawny Front Bottle Shot
                  Sandeman 20 Year Old Tawny
                  Port from Portugal
                  • WE95
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                  • Broadbent 5 Year Madeira Reserve Front Label
                    Broadbent 5 Year Madeira Reserve
                    Madeira from Madeira, Portugal
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                      • Graham's Six Grapes Reserve Ruby Port  Front Label
                        Graham's Six Grapes Reserve Ruby Port
                        Port from Douro, Portugal
                        • D95
                        • W&S91
                        • WW91
                        4.1 579 Ratings
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                        • Dow's 40 Year Old Tawny Port  Front Label
                          Dow's 40 Year Old Tawny Port
                          Port from Portugal
                          • WS95
                          • WE93
                          • W&S91
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                        • Graham's 40 Year Old Tawny Port Front Label
                          Graham's 40 Year Old Tawny Port
                          Port from Douro, Portugal
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                          • JS96
                          • WE94
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                          • Graham's 10 Year Old Tawny Port Front Label
                            Graham's 10 Year Old Tawny Port
                            Port from Douro, Portugal
                            • D93
                            • JS93
                            • WE91
                            • WS90
                            4.3 284 Ratings
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                            • Broadbent Madeira Colheita 1996 Front Label
                              Broadbent Madeira Colheita 1996
                              Madeira from Madeira, Portugal
                              • RP92
                              • WW92
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                              • Cocchi Rosa Americano  Front Bottle Shot
                                Cocchi Rosa Americano
                                Other Fortified from Asti, Piedmont, Italy
                                • WE94
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                                • Lillet Blanc  Front Bottle Shot
                                  Lillet Blanc
                                  Vermouth from France
                                  • WE92
                                  4.5 159 Ratings
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                                  • Dow's Fine Tawny Port Front Label
                                    Dow's Fine Tawny Port
                                    Port from Portugal
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                                      • Croft Reserve Tawny Porto Front Label
                                        Croft Reserve Tawny Porto
                                        Port from Portugal
                                        • TP92
                                        • WS90
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                                        • Oliver Winery Sweet Red  Front Label
                                          Oliver Winery Sweet Red
                                          Fruit Wine from Indiana, Other U.S.
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                                            • Broadbent 10 Year Boal Madeira Front Label
                                              Broadbent 10 Year Boal Madeira
                                              Madeira from Madeira, Portugal
                                              • WW90
                                              • RP90
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                                              • Cocchi Americano Bianco  Front Bottle Shot
                                                Cocchi Americano Bianco
                                                Other Fortified from Asti, Piedmont, Italy
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                                                  • Van Zellers & Co VZ 40 Years Old Tawny Port  Front Label
                                                    Van Zellers & Co VZ 40 Years Old Tawny Port
                                                    Port from Douro, Portugal
                                                    • RP95
                                                    • WE93
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                                                    • Leacock's Rainwater Madeira Front Label
                                                      Leacock's Rainwater Madeira
                                                      Madeira from Madeira, Portugal
                                                      • WS90
                                                      3.9 77 Ratings
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