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Dessert, Sherry, Port & other Fortified wine

Learn about dessert, Sherry, Port & other fortified wine — the range of styles, how they are made and more …

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What are the types and styles of dessert wine?

Dessert wines come in an impressive array of styles and sweetness levels. The most straightforward method for making dessert wine is quite simply a late harvest of wine grapes, though further distinctions arise based on country of origin. The main examples include Sauternes (France), Tokaji (Hungary) and ice wine (Germany and Canada).

What are the types and styles of fortified wine?

Fortified wines (meaning alcohol has been added during the winemaking process) include Sherry, Port, Madeira, Banyuls, Rutherglen and other very small-scale styles. Sherry comes in completely dry styles (Fino, Manzanilla, Amontillado, Palo Cortado) and also in a range of sweetness levels. Madeira is typically sweet but can be made into a dry style. Port can be most simply separated into Tawny and Ruby styles. Vermouth, an herb-infused fine wine, is today popular among mixologists and other dessert wines are derived, not from wine grapes, but from different fruits.

How are dessert and fortified wines made?

As mentioned above, many wines in this category—like Sauternes and Tokaji—are produced by leaving the grapes on the vine long after the rest of the harvest has been processed in order to accumulate very high sugar levels. Often, a form of “noble” rot called botrytis plays a role, desiccating the grapes until only the very flavorful solids and sugars remain. These late-picked wines are, accordingly, often referred to as late-harvest wines. In colder climates, the grapes may be allowed to freeze on the vine for the production of ice wine. Other styles are made by letting the harvested grapes dry out (also concentrating sugars). Fortified wines are fortified with neutral spirits to increase the level of alcohol, and, depending on the final style of wine desired, arrest fermentation while some level, high to low (or no), residual sugar remains.

What gives dessert and fortified wines their color?

The different colors of most dessert wines come from the type of grape used and varying levels of oxidation during the winemaking process. The colors of Sherry and Port are mainly the result of oxidation, or lack thereof. Fino and Manzanilla styles are clear to pale gold because of the benevolent film-forming yeasts, called flor, that make a floating seal on the surface of the wine. This layer protects the wine from oxidation, and thus any browning. The other styles of Sherry use various levels of controlled oxidation, resulting in various hues of amber. The two basic styles of Port, Ruby and Tawny, also come in two basic colors, as noted by their names. Both styles are made from the same blend of Douro red varieties, but Tawny ports are tawny in color because they are made from a blend of vintages that have been aged in barrels and gradually exposed to oxygen. Ruby Ports retain their bright color because these wines are aged in barrel only for two to three years before bottling, thus minimizing any color change from oxidation.

How do you serve dessert and fortified wines?

Because of the typically higher sugar and alcohol content, the recommended serving size for most dessert, Sherry & Port wines is three ounces, which is smaller than for regular table wine. In general dessert wines should be served cold—a very sweet Tokaji is served at 40F; Sauternes are best at 50F. Fino and Manzanilla Sherries are best served at 45-50F, while the Amontillados, Olorosos and beyond, are best at 55F. Tawny Ports have a recommended serving temperature of 50-55F, whereas Ruby and Vintage Ports have a recommended serving temperature of 65F.

How long do dessert and fortified wines last?

High quality dessert wines such as Sauternes and Tokaji can often improve up to 10 to 20 years from bottling. Fino and Manzanilla Sherries should be consumed within a year or two of bottling since they are most appreciated for their freshness. Once opened, these are best consumed within a week. Store Amontillado Sherry up to about three years; once opened and refrigerated, these last two to three weeks before they decline. Store Oloro Sherry up to five years; once opened and refrigerated, these last a few weeks or longer. Cream Sherries are best consumed in their youth. Pedro Ximénez Sherry is a special case. It won’t necessarily improve with age, but is known to remain unchanged after many years of age. The two basic styles of Port can be further separated into an almost dizzying list of styles, but in general the only ones meant to age longer once bottled are crusted ports and vintage ports (from a declared vintage). Aside from those, LBV (late bottled vintage) ports should age about 4-6 years from the release date and the rest are ready to drink upon release. Fruit wines are not meant to age; the fresh fruit qualities of these wines are most prominent in their youth.

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  • Chateau Lafaurie-Peyraguey Sauternes 2003 Front Label
    Chateau Lafaurie-Peyraguey Sauternes 2003
    Other Dessert from Sauternes, Bordeaux, France
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  • Chateau d'Yquem Sauternes 2003 Front Label
    Chateau d'Yquem Sauternes 2003
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  • Hogue Fruit Forward Late Harvest Riesling 2003 Front Label
    Hogue Fruit Forward Late Harvest Riesling 2003
    Other Dessert from Columbia Valley, Washington
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      • Taylor Fladgate Late Bottled Vintage Port 2003 Front Label
        Taylor Fladgate Late Bottled Vintage Port 2003
        Port from Portugal
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        • Graham's Vintage Port 2003 Front Label
          Graham's Vintage Port 2003
          Port from Douro, Portugal
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        • Taylor Fladgate Vintage Port 2003  Front Label
          Taylor Fladgate Vintage Port 2003
          Port from Portugal
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        • Quinta do Noval Vintage Port 2003 Front Label
          Quinta do Noval Vintage Port 2003
          Port from Portugal
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        • Croft Vintage Port 2003 Front Label
          Croft Vintage Port 2003
          Port from Portugal
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        • Warre's Late Bottled Vintage Port 2003 Front Label
          Warre's Late Bottled Vintage Port 2003
          Port from Portugal
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          • Ramos Pinto Vintage Port 2003 Front Label
            Ramos Pinto Vintage Port 2003
            Port from Portugal
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            • Shafer Port 2003 Front Label
              Shafer Port 2003
              Port from Napa Valley, California
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                • Fonseca Vintage Port 2003 Front Label
                  Fonseca Vintage Port 2003
                  Port from Portugal
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                • Chateau Gravas Sauternes 2003
                  Other Dessert from Sauternes, Bordeaux, France
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                    • Jaboulet Beaumes de Venise Muscat 2003 Front Label
                      Jaboulet Beaumes de Venise Muscat 2003
                      Other Dessert from Rhone, France
                      • WS88
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                      • Clarendelle Inspired by Haut-Brion Amberwine 2003 Front Label
                        Clarendelle Inspired by Haut-Brion Amberwine 2003
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                          • Quady Essensia Orange Muscat 2003 Front Label
                            Quady Essensia Orange Muscat 2003
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                              • Justin Obtuse 2003 Front Label
                                Justin Obtuse 2003
                                Port from California
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                                  • Churchill's Quinta da Gricha Vintage Port 2003  Front Label
                                    Churchill's Quinta da Gricha Vintage Port 2003
                                    Port from Douro, Portugal
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                                    • Clos Jean Loupiac 2003 Front Label
                                      Clos Jean Loupiac 2003
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                                        • Dow's Vintage Port 2003 Front Label
                                          Dow's Vintage Port 2003
                                          Port from Portugal
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                                        • Broadbent Vintage Port 2003 Front Label
                                          Broadbent Vintage Port 2003
                                          Port from Portugal
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                                          • Warre's Vintage Port 2003 Front Label
                                            Warre's Vintage Port 2003
                                            Port from Portugal
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                                            • Quinta de Roriz Vintage Port 2003  Front Label
                                              Quinta de Roriz Vintage Port 2003
                                              Port from Portugal
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                                              • Chateau Rayne Vigneau Sauternes 2003 Front Label
                                                Chateau Rayne Vigneau Sauternes 2003
                                                Other Dessert from Sauternes, Bordeaux, France
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                                                • Arrowood Hoot Owl Vineyard Late Harvest Riesling 2003 Front Label
                                                  Arrowood Hoot Owl Vineyard Late Harvest Riesling 2003
                                                  Other Dessert from Sonoma County, California
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