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The soils in our vineyards are composed partly of rubble which has eroded from the Andes mountains and deposited by glaciers and wind, and partly of alluvial sand and silt deposited by the river. While stony, gravely soils are regarded as poor for most crops, their excellent drainage qualities make them perfect for wine growing. The climate is semi-arid (average annual rainfall is 80-100 mm) making drip irrigation indispensable during the spring and summer months.
Climatic factors have a crucial influence on the quality and flavour of wine. With the majestic Andes as a backdrop, their peaks gleaming white all through the summer, the vineyards benefit from currents of cold air which descend from the high mountains at night. They cool the vineyards, causing a dramatic contrast between day and night time temperatures during the ripening season, from 27-32°C (80.6-89.6°F) to 10-12°C (50-53.6°F). This has the result of reducing respiration via the leaches and thereby furthering the accumulation of sugar in the grapes as well as the synthesis of polyphenols (tannins and coloring matter) along with the aroma and flavour substance.